This page contains the NCERT Business Studies class 12 chapter 7 Directing from Part 1 Principles and Functions of Management. You can find the solutions for the chapter 7 of NCERT class 12 Business Studies, for the Short Answer Questions, Long Answer Questions and Projects/Assignments Questions in this page. So is the case if you are looking for NCERT class 12 Business Studies related topic Directing question and answers.
Very Short Answer Type
1. What is informal communication?
Informal communication is communication that takes place without following the formal lines of communication, often referred to as the ‘grapevine’. It arises out of the need of employees to exchange their views and is not bound by organizational hierarchies or structures.
2. Which style of leadership does not believe in use of power unless it is absolutely essential?
The Laissez-faire or Free-rein leadership style does not believe in the use of power unless it is absolutely essential.
3. Which element in the communication process involves converting the message into words, symbols, gestures etc.?
The element in the communication process that involves converting the message into words, symbols, gestures etc. is “Encoding.”
4. The workers always try to show their inability when any new work is given to them. They are always unwilling to take up any kind of work. Due to sudden rise in demand a firm wants to meet excess orders. The supervisor is finding it difficult to cope up with the situation. State the element of directing that can help the supervisor in handling the problem.
The element of directing that can help the supervisor in handling the problem is “Motivation.”
Short Answer Type
1. What are semantic barriers of communication?
Semantic barriers of communication pertain to the problems and obstructions in the process of encoding and decoding a message into words or impressions. These barriers can arise due to the use of wrong words, faulty translations, different interpretations, or technical jargon. For instance, a word might have multiple meanings, leading to confusion, or a message might be poorly expressed, causing misinterpretation.
2. Explain the process of motivation with the help of a diagram.
Process of Motivation
The following is the explanation the process of motivation using the following heads in order provided in the diagram:
Unsatisfied Needs: When a disparity exists between an individual’s current state and a desired state, unsatisfied needs emerge.
Tension: This disparity creates a psychological tension, prompting a desire to reduce discomfort.
Drives: Drives are internal forces that motivate an individual to act to reduce the noted tension.
Search Behaviour: The individual explores different avenues or methods to find ways to satisfy their unsatisfied needs.
Satisfied Need: Once the need is satisfied through selected actions, the individual attains a level of contentment.
Reduction of Tension: Satisfying the need leads to a decrease in tension, bringing the individual back to a psychological equilibrium.
3. State the different networks of grapevine communications.
Grapevine communication can follow various types of networks. The different networks of grapevine communication are as follows:
Single Strand Network: In this, each person communicates to the other in sequence.
Gossip Network: Here, each person communicates with all on a non-selective basis.
Probability Network: In this type, the individual communicates randomly with another individual.
Cluster: In this network, the individual communicates only with those people whom he trusts.
4. Explain any three principles of Directing.
Three of the principles of directing are explained below:
Maximum individual contribution: Ensures directing aids each individual to maximally contribute by harnessing their untapped energies through effective motivation plans.
Harmony of objectives: Aligns individual and organizational objectives, ensuring employee rewards and work efficiency complement each other.
Unity of Command: Mandates an employee to receive instructions from only one superior to avoid organizational confusion and conflict.
5. In an organisation, one of the departmental manager is inflexible and once he takes a decision, he does not like to be contradicted. As a result, employees always feel they are under stress and they take least initiative and fear to express their opinions and problems before the manager. What is the problem in the way authority is being used by the manager?
In the described scenario, the departmental manager is exhibiting an Autocratic or Authoritarian leadership style. In this style, the leader gives orders and expects his subordinates to obey those orders without questioning. The manager’s inflexibility and unwillingness to be contradicted are characteristics of this leadership style. As a result, employees feel stressed, suppressed, and hesitant to express their opinions or concerns, fearing repercussions.
6. A reputed hostel, GyanPradan provides medical aid and free education to children of its employees. Which incentive is being highlighted here? State its category and name any two more incentives of the same category.
Long Answer Type
1. Discuss Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory of motivation.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
Abraham Maslow, a renowned psychologist, presented a compelling framework through his Need Hierarchy Theory in 1943, which sought to elucidate human motivation by categorizing needs into a hierarchical structure. This theory hinges on the premise that the driving force behind human behavior is their unsatisfied needs and, once a need is satisfied, it ceases to be a motivator, giving way to the next need in the hierarchy.
Detailed Examination of the Five Needs:
Basic Physiological Needs: Often recognized as the most primary and essential, these needs—including hunger, thirst, and shelter—are pivotal for basic survival. Within an organization, aspects like providing a basic salary to meet these needs are crucial to keep employees motivated.
Safety/Security Needs: Following physiological needs, individuals seek safety and security to shield themselves from harm. This extends to job security, steady income, and possibly retirement plans in a professional context, safeguarding them from financial vulnerabilities.
Affiliation/Belonging Needs: Social integration and acceptance become pivotal at this stage. Affection, friendship, and a sense of belonging within a group or team become vital in both personal and professional realms.
Esteem Needs: Esteem needs delve into facets like recognition, attention, and status, where individuals seek acknowledgment for their accomplishments and capabilities.
Self Actualisation Needs: Positioned at the peak of the hierarchy, this is where individuals pursue becoming the most that they can be, striving toward achieving their personal goals and realizing their potential.
Underpinning Assumptions of the Theory:
Behavior and Needs: People’s actions are propelled by their prevailing unmet needs, and satisfying these needs subsequently alters their behavior.
Hierarchical Order: Needs are stratified, progressing from fundamental physiological needs to more psychologically intricate needs.
Satisfaction and Motivation: Once a need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a motivator, supplanted by the subsequent unmet need.
Progression Through Levels: Individuals ascend the hierarchy only upon satisfying the current dominant need.
Relevance and Application in Organizational Contexts:
Maslow’s theory, albeit subject to critiques regarding its classification and hierarchy of needs, has endured as a pivotal lens through which to understand and navigate human motivation. In a practical, organizational setting, comprehending these needs is integral. The understanding that needs, irrespective of their classification, are vital in influencing behavior is pivotal for managers in crafting strategies that motivate their team. The theory nudges managers to identify and address the current level of needs of their employees to curate and implement effective motivation and engagement strategies.
In summary, Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory offers a structured approach to understanding what propels individuals to act in a certain way, facilitating tailored strategies to motivate and engage employees by aligning organizational practices and incentives with their prevailing unmet needs. This encapsulates both tangible and intangible aspects, spanning from providing a satisfactory basic salary to ensuring a sense of belonging and recognizing achievements, thus ensuring a holistic approach to employee motivation.
2. What are the common barriers to effective communication? Suggest measures to overcome them.
The common barriers to effective communication are categorized into four sections: Semantic barriers, Psychological barriers, Organisational barriers, and Personal barriers.
1. Semantic Barriers:
Badly expressed message: Precise language and clarity are essential to avoid misinterpretation.
Symbols with different meanings: Employing common organizational language and ensuring clear contexts to prevent misinterpretations.
Faulty translations: Utilizing proficient translators and double-checking translations for accuracy.
Unclarified assumptions: Making assumptions explicit and providing clear instructions.
Technical jargon: Utilizing simplified language where possible and providing explanations for technical terms.
Body language and gesture decoding: Ensuring alignment between verbal communication and body language.
2. Psychological Barriers:
Premature evaluation: Encouraging active listening and preventing judgment before complete message delivery.
Lack of attention: Ensuring the receiver is attentive and not preoccupied during communication.
Loss by transmission and poor retention: Reducing the layers of communication and ensuring concise messaging for better retention.
Distrust: Building trust through transparency and consistent communication.
3. Organisational Barriers:
Organisational policy: Adopting policies that encourage open and free flow of communication.
Rules and regulations: Streamlining procedures and minimizing bureaucratic hurdles.
Status: Encouraging an organizational culture that minimizes hierarchical distance.
Complexity in organisation structure: Simplifying organizational structure where possible and ensuring clear communication pathways.
Organisational facilities: Implementing facilities and systems that foster smooth communication.
4. Personal Barriers:
Fear of challenge to authority: Encouraging an open-door policy and accepting constructive feedback.
Lack of confidence of superior on his subordinates: Building confidence through training and open dialogue.
Unwillingness to communicate: Creating a safe environment for subordinates to share their thoughts without fear of repercussions.
Lack of proper incentives: Implementing reward systems to motivate communication and knowledge sharing.
All of these measures to overcome barriers are constructed with the aid of the provided passage and do align with the barriers listed therein. A blend of proper policy-making, the creation of a conducive organizational culture, and practical systems for facilitating communication can mitigate the presented barriers. However, the exact applications of these strategies might need to be tailored according to the specific dynamics and challenges of an organization.
3. Explain different financial and non-financial incentives used to motivate employees of a company?
Financial incentives can be described as direct monetary benefits or those that can be measured in monetary terms to motivate better performance among employees. These incentives can be utilized on both individual and group bases. Here is a detailed breakdown:
Pay and Allowances
Basic pay and allowances, such as dearness allowance, form a crucial part of monetary incentives.
Regular increments and enhancements of allowances are common.
Some companies link pay hikes and increments to performance.
Productivity Linked Wage Incentives: These involve linking wage payments to increases in productivity at both individual and group levels.
Bonus: Bonuses are additional incentives offered over and above the usual wages or salary.
Profit Sharing: Employees receive a share of the organization’s profits, which motivates them to contribute to increasing these profits.
Co-partnership/ Stock Option
Employees may be offered company shares at a price lower than market value.
In some cases, like in Infosys, stock options are used as a part of managerial compensation.
Retirement Benefits: Providing retirement benefits like provident funds, pensions, and gratuities provides financial security to employees after retirement and thus serves as an incentive during their service period.
Perquisites: Perquisites and fringe benefits like car allowances, housing, medical aid, and children’s education can be offered in addition to the salary.
Non-financial incentives aim to satisfy psychological, social, and emotional needs. While they may involve some monetary aspects, the emphasis is on providing psychological and emotional satisfaction. Some non-financial incentives are as follows:
Status: Involves the ranking of positions in the organization, satisfying psychological, social, and esteem needs.
Organisational Climate: Refers to the unique characteristics of an organization, such as individual autonomy, reward orientation, and consideration to employees.
Career Advancement Opportunity: Managers provide opportunities for employees to improve their skills and get promoted to higher-level jobs through skill development programs and sound promotion policies.
Job Enrichment: Designing jobs that offer a variety of work content, require a higher level of knowledge and skill, give more autonomy and responsibility, and provide opportunities for personal growth.
Employee Recognition Programs: Recognition and appreciation of work through various forms such as congratulations for good performance, displaying achievements on notice boards or newsletters, and awarding certificates for best performance.
Job Security: Provides employees with stability regarding future income and work, although it may potentially lead to complacency.
Employee Participation: Involving employees in decision-making related to them through various committees and programs.
Employee Empowerment: Providing more autonomy and powers to subordinates, making them feel their jobs are important and contributing positively to the use of their skills and talents in job performance.
4. In an organisation all the employees take things easy and are free to approach anyone for minor queries and problems. This has resulted in everyone taking to each other and thus resulting in inefficiency in the office. It has also resulted in loss of secrecy and confidential information being leaked out. What system do you think the manager should adopt to improve communication?
The manager should adopt a system comprising the following improvements for effective communication.
Adopt Formal Communication Channels
The manager should enforce formal communication channels to ensure the efficient and structured flow of information.
Considering the leakage of confidential information and inefficiency, incorporating a structured communication method like Vertical (upward and downward) or Horizontal communication can streamline discussions and keep vital information within required boundaries.
Classify Information and Communication Levels
Sensitive and confidential information should be communicated only through secure and formal vertical channels, ensuring it reaches only the intended recipients.
Ordinary and daily communication could utilize horizontal channels where it’s necessary for collaborative efforts among peers.
Implementation of Policies and Procedures
Formulate and implement strict policies regarding the dissemination of official information to prevent leaks.
Employees should be educated on the significance of adhering to formal communication channels for official communication.
Apart from the above, few additional measures, as specified below, can be adopted.
Encourage the Use of Official Communication Tools
Implement the use of official email, messaging apps, or intranet for official communication, reducing reliance on informal chats for work-related discussions.
Monitoring these platforms for ensuring adherence to policies and keeping track of the information flow.
Organize Regular Training Sessions
Train employees on the importance and methods of keeping official information confidential.
Educate them on the implications of information leaks both for the organization and individually.
Create a Feedback Mechanism
Ensure there is a system in place for employees to report issues or provide feedback regarding communication channels and policies.
The manager should address concerns and ensure there is clarity regarding communication norms.
Inculcate a Culture of Responsibility
Foster a culture where each employee understands their role in maintaining effective communication and preserving confidentiality.
Appreciate and reward employees who adhere to the communication policies and show responsibility.
Implement a Two-way Communication System
Ensure that while enforcing formal communication, there remains a provision for employees to communicate their concerns, ideas, and feedback to the management effectively.
Even in a formal setup, maintaining a system that allows upward communication will keep the workforce motivated and involved.
Periodic Review and Improvement
Conduct periodic reviews of the communication system and policies to identify loopholes or inefficiencies.
Make necessary adjustments and communicate changes effectively to all employees.
By integrating a structured formal communication system and ensuring that all members adhere to it, the manager can create a balanced environment where information flows effectively without compromising confidentiality and efficiency.