# Business Finance and Arithmetic

This page contains the CBSE entrepreneurship class 11 chapter Entrepreneurship as Business Finance and Arithmetic notes. You can find the questions/answers/solutions for the chapter 6 of CBSE class 11 entrepreneurship in this page.
Cash Register – Worksheet
Fill in the blanks using the options given below:
(i)
The importance of in business is similar to that of blood in the human body. (cash)
(ii)
A notebook in which we write to keep track of all the daily transactions which happens in the business is called as the &. (cashbook)
(iii)
Sometimes when the businesses have trust in people, cash does not cross hands but instead they are given what is called or . (credit or loan)
(iv)
The money which comes into the business is called and the money which goes out of the business is called . (inflow, outflow)
(v)
When the buyer pays the money to the seller at a later date it is called . (credit transactions)
(vi)
Balance in the cashbook (or the cash box) does not represent the . (profit)
(outflow, profit, credit transactions, cashbook, credit or loan, inflow, cash flow, cash, expenses)
Unit of Sale, Unit Cost and Unit Price – Worksheet
Fill in the blanks using the options given below:
1.
can be defined as individual item that a company sells. (unit of sale)
2.
The cost incurred by a company to produce, store and sell one unit of a particular product is referred to as . (unit cost)
3.
Unit cost refers to the cost. (variable)
4.
Gross profit equals minus the . (unit price, unit cost)
(Variable, cost of goods sold, unit of sale, net sales, unit cost, unit price)
Match the following:
(a) Garment Shop
(i) Kilogram
(b) Plumber
(ii) Litre
(c) Real Estate / Apartment
(iii) Piece / Dozen
(d) Consultant
(iv) Meter (of fixed width)
(e) Fruit Vendor
(v) Time: Hour
(f) Textile
(vi) Square feet
(g) Dairy
(vii) Time: Hour
The following will be the matching:
(a) Garment Shop
(iv) Meter (of fixed width)
(b) Plumber
(vii) Time: Hour
(c) Real Estate / Apartment
(vi) Square feet
(d) Consultant
(v) Time: Hour
(e) Fruit Vendor
(i) Kilogram
(f) Textile
(iii) Piece / Dozen
(g) Dairy
(ii) Litre
Types of Cost – Worksheet
Fill in the blanks using the options given below:
1.
The two types of costs are and . (start-up cost, operational cost)
2.
Quite often the terms “Start-up” and “” are used interchangeably. (one time cost)
3.
It is important to remember that fixed costs are “fixed in ” and not necessarily “fixed in .” (nature, amount)
4.
Do not fall in to the trap of classifying an expense in one or the other category, without knowing which ————– it refers to. (business)

(one time cost, fixed, amount, Start-up cost, business, operational cost, nature, variable)
Income Statement – Worksheet
1) Fill in the blanks using the options given below:
a)
Income Statement is also referred as . (Profit and Loss Statemnet)
b)
Income Statement does not show transactions (cash)
c)
It shows the of the company for a specified duration. (profitability)
d)
Profit is a financial benefit that is realized when the amount of gained from a business activity exceeds the , and needed to sustain the activity. (revenue, costs, expenses, taxes)
e)
Profit is calculated as the difference between and . (total revenue, total expenses)
(cash, taxes, revenue, costs, expenses, Profit and Loss Statement, profitability, total expenses, total revenue)
2) Following story “Savitha Sari Shop” can be used as exercise both for Income Statement and Cash Flow Projections.
Savitha Sari Shop
Savitha conducted a survey in her neighborhood and was convinced that there was an opportunity to start a Sari Shop.
She plans to bring saris from Surat and sell it to her clients.
She has decided on the types of saris that could sell for ₹ 250/- per piece. She will be able to get these saris at ₹ 125/- per piece. The packing of each sari will cost ₹ 12.50/-.
She wants to employ two sales staff (shop sale as well as door to door and office sale) at a salary of ₹ 1,000/- each per month. She will also be working in the business and take salary of 1,000/- per month. The sales staff will earn commission @ 10% on sales. The freight for saris from Surat works out to ₹ 12.50/- per sari.
The front portion of her house, which was rented at ₹ 1,500/- per month is now vacant. She will do this up with proper lighting, painting etc. She also wants to put proper seating, cupboards and show –cases to exhibit her products.
Cost of all the furniture, painting, lighting etc is ₹ 90,000/- (Quotations from vendors). She has ₹ 20,000/- of her savings, which she will invest in this business. Besides, she has convinced her bankers about the profitability of the business and has been assured of a loan of ₹ 100,000/- at 12% interest per annum. For the first 12 months, only interest will be payable. Repayment will start thereafter.
Supplier from Surat sends goods once a month. Savitha has to forecast her sale for the following month and buy the goods by paying cash.
Savitha knows very well that cash is the blood in business and hence plans to be very cautious about credit sales.
Monthly utility bill is expected to be the average of ₹ 500/-, phone bill ₹ 500/- and various other office expenses (including publicity) estimated around ₹ 1,000/- per month.
Projected Sales for six months are as shown:
Month
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Total saris sold in quantity
72
84
100
120
152
192
192
Cash sale in quantity
60
68
80
100
128
160
160
Credit sale in quantity
12
16
20
20
24
32
32
Cash sale rupees
15,000
17,000
20,000
25,000
32,000
40,000
Credit sale rupees
3,000
4,000
5,000
5,000
6,000
8,000
Money from Credit Sales comes in the following month.
Please prepare a projected monthly Income Statement for Savitha Sari Shop in the format shown here:
Savitha Sari Shop
Income Statement
Mth 1
Mth 2
Mth 3
Mth 4
Mth 5
Mth 6
Total
Sales Revenue (₹)
Cash
Credit
Total sales
A
Cost of goods sold
Raw material
Packing material
Sales commission
Freight
Total Cost (Variable cost)
B
Gross profit
C = A – B
Fixed expenses
Salary
Rent
Utilities
Interest
Phone
Office exp
Depreciation
Total fixed expenses
D
Profit/loss b4 tax
E = C – D
Cumulative profit/loss
Mth 1
Mth 2
Mth 3
Mth 4
Mth 5
Mth 6
Total
Sales Revenue (₹)
Cash
15,000
17,000
20,000
25,000
32,000
40,000
1,49,000
Credit
3,000
4,000
5,000
5,000
6,000
8,000
31,000
Total sales
A
18,000
21,000
25,000
30,000
38,000
48,000
1,80,000
Cost of goods sold
Raw material
9,000
10,500
12,500
15,000
19,000
24,000
90,000
Packing material
900
1,050
1,250
1,500
1,900
2,400
9,000
Sales commission
1,800
2,100
2,500
3,000
3,800
4,800
18,000
Freight
900
1,050
1,250
1,500
1,900
2,400
9,000
Total Cost (Variable cost)
B
12,600
14,700
17,500
21,000
26,600
33,600
1,26,000
Gross profit
C = A – B
5,400
6,300
7,500
9,000
11,400
14,400
54,000
Fixed expenses
Salary
3,000
3,000
3,000
3,000
3,000
3,000
18,000
Rent
1,500
1,500
1,500
1,500
1,500
1,500
9,000
Utilities
500
500
500
500
500
500
3,000
Interest
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
6,000
Phone
500
500
500
500
500
500
3,000
Office exp
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
6,000
Depreciation
Total fixed expenses
D
7,500
7,500
7,500
7,500
7,500
7,500
45,000
Profit/loss b4 tax
E = C – D
(2,100)
(6,300)
0
1,500
3,900
6,900
9,000
Cumulative profit/loss
(2,100)
(6,300)
0
1,500
3,900
6,900
9,000
Break Even Analysis – for a single product or service
Fill in the blanks using the options below
1.
A business‘s break-even point is the amount or level of that it must generate in order to equal its . (sales or revenues, expenses)
2.
At the break-even level is equal to the total expenses. (total revenue)
3.
Break even volume per month is equal to /.(fixed cost, gross margin per unit)
4.
The business is at neither nor , when it is at break even point. (profit, loss)
(Fixed cost per month, profit, sales or revenues, loss, expenses, total revenue, gross margin per unit, income, fixed cost).
Taxes
Fill in the blanks using the options given below:
1.
A is one that cannot be shifted by the taxpayer to someone else, whereas an can be. (direct tax, indirect tax)
2.
or is a local tax on buildings, along with the belonging land, and imposed on owners. (property tax, house tax)
3.
If tax is levied on the price of a good or service, then it is called an (indirect tax)
4.
Governments collect taxes so as to collect revenue and later spend it for (social welfare)
5.
Income tax, Wealth tax and Corporate Assets tax are examples of (direct tax)
(Property tax, indirect tax, direct tax, revenue, social welfare, income tax)

Q.1. Answer the following in about 15 words.
(i)
What do you mean by Unit of Sale?
(ii)
What do you mean by Gross Profit?
(iii)
“When you sell your product but the buyer does not pay your money immediately” It is known as?
Q.1. (i) What do you mean by Unit of Sale?
Unit of Sale can be defined as the measure of product/service sold. It is basically used for billing the buyer.
Q.1. (ii) What do you mean by Gross Profit?
Gross profit is the profit that a business can make by selling a product or service before deducting the fixed expenses. It is also know as Gross Margin. It is calculated as follows:
Gross Profit per unit
= Unit Price – Unit cost
Q.1. (iii) “When you sell your product but the buyer does not pay your money immediately” It is known as?
This is called selling on credit where in the buyer pays the seller at a later date.

Q.2. Answer the following in about 50 words
(i)
Give 4 examples of Fixed Costs.
(ii)
Give 2 examples of Start-up Cost.
(iii)
Give four examples of Inflow and Outflow of cash.
(iv)
What do you mean by Cash Inflow and Cash Outflow?
Q.1. (i) Give 4 examples of Fixed Costs.
1.
Building or office maintenance
2.
Depreciation
3.
Electricity
4.
Equipment maintenance
5.
External Consultant charges
6.
Housekeeping
7.
Internet and Telephone
8.
Marketing and promotional
9.
Property tax
10.
Rent for the building/equipment/vehicles
11.
Research and development
12.
Salary to the employees
13.
Stationery
14.
Utility
15.
Wages
Q.2. (ii) Give 2 examples of Start-up Cost.
The following are the examples of Start-up Cost.
1.
Appliances (like refrigerator/air conditioner/ water dispenser/TV etc for employees)
2.
Advance paid towards lease/rent
3.
Building
4.
Business Registration expenses
5.
License expenses
6.
Computers, Software & hardware
7.
Electricity and electrical wiring setup expenses
8.
Furniture and Interior decoration
9.
Infrastructure
10.
Initial payment for procuring electricity, telephone, internet etc
11.
Land
12.
Raw materials, Machinery, tools and equipment
13.
Recreation (providing a gym TV room, or table tennis or caroms facility for the employees)
14.
Utensils
15.
Vehicles for business purpose
16.
Salary to the employees in the start-up period
Q.2. (iii) Give four examples of Inflow and Outflow of cash.
The following are the examples of Inflow of cash.
a.
Claims Received
b.
Franchise payments received
c.
Investor equity
d.
Legal settlements’ amount received
e.
Loans from banks/family/friends
f.
Owner’s equity
g.
Rent received
h.
Sale of Assets or Scrap
i.
Sales Receipts
j.
Sale of shares
k.
Subsidy from the government
The following are the examples of outflow of cash
a.
Building maintenance and other expenses.
b.
Building
c.
Computers and related hardware
d.
Electricity, Telephone, Internet expenses
e.
Employee recreational expenses
f.
Employee salaries and other perks/benefits
g.
Employee training expenses
h.
External consultant charges
i.
Interior decoration
j.
Marketing and promotional expenses
k.
Money paid for legal settlements
l.
Raw material
m.
Software purchases and other related license renewal charges
n.
Stationery
o.
Tools, Equipment and machinery
p.
Utility expenses

(iv) What do you mean by Cash Inflow and Cash Outflow?
The folllowing are the meanings of Cash Inflow and Cash outflow.
Cash Inflow: The cash that gets into the business or receipts of cash is called as cash inflow. This will usually results from
1.
Operations performed by the organization.
2.
Various investments flowing into the business.
3.
As a result of financing.
Cash Outflow: The cash that goes out of the business or payments of cash is called as cash outflow. This will usually results from
1.
Expenditure incurred by the organization.
2.
Various investments made by the organizations in the other businesses.
3.
The organization provides the required finance for other enterprises/businesses.
Q.3. Answer the following in about 75 words
(i)
Give one difference between Direct Tax and Indirect tax.
(ii)
Why motive of Business is to learn profit and not Loss?
(iii)
Give one different between Cash flow and Income statement.
(iv)
What do you mean by Non Cash Expenses?
(v)
What do you mean by Startup Cost?
(vi)
Explain Cost, Expenses and Expenditure.
(vii)
What is a Cash Register? Why is it important for any business?
Q.3. (i) Give one difference between Direct Tax and Indirect tax.
The following are the differences between the direct tax and indirect tax.
Direct Taxes
Indirect Taxes
1. Imposed directly on the tax payer by the government.
1. Imposed on the products or services. This tax is collected by an intermediary person or entity (such as a restaurant or a medical store or supplier) and is born by the end user or entity.
2. Paid directly by the tax payer to the government
2. The intermediary person or entity who collected the tax from the end user pays the tax to the government.
3. The direct tax can not be transferred to someone else
3. Except the end user or entity, all the intermediary persons transfers the tax to the person or entity to whom the product or service is sold
4. Few examples of the direct tax are income tax, property tax, social security tax, corporation tax etc
4. Examples include central excise duty, customs duty, entertainment tax, luxury tax, service tax, sales tax or Value added Tax (VAT) etc

Q.3. (ii) Why motive of Business is to learn profit and not Loss?
The motive of the business is to learn/earn profit and not loss as per the analysis provided below:
When it comes to the economy stand point, earning significant profit is the primary motive of almost all the businesses. They always strive to earn profit and work with this as their primary objective. Everyone in the enterprise should work towards the goal of fulfilling this objective. Only through profits the company can sustain a business and does not fall into the bankruptcy.
For continuous sustenance in the business, it should start earning money to meet the expenses like salaries to the employees etc. The moment the business start seeing losses, it should spend the amount from investment to meet these expenses. This will be against the objective of the business.
Q.3. (iii) Give one different between Cash flow and Income statement.
The following are the differences between cash flow and income statements.
Income Statement
Cash flow Statement
1. It helps us to get an idea about the profit earned by the business over a period of time.
1. It helps us to get an idea about the cash flowing into and out of the business, historically..
2. It is composed of
a.
Revenues
b.
Expenses
c.
Gains
d.
and Losses
It also includes the non-cash items such as depreciation and amortization.

2. It is composed of
a.
Cash receipts (money received by the business)
b.
Cash disbursements (money goes out of/paid by the business)
3. Income statement is will have a heading that depicts the profits of the company over a specified period of time.
3. Typically, in the indirect method, the profit or loss to the company becomes the first statement in the cash flow statement. In the direct method, the cash flow is computed from the cash inflow and outflow.
Q.3. (iv) What do you mean by Non Cash Expenses?
The expenses like depreciation and amortization do not involve any cash outflow and hence are referred to as non-cash expenditure. However, they are reported as expenses in the income statement. They usually represent the decrease in the value of a tangible(ex. machinery) or intangible(ex. license) asset, over a period of time.
Depreciation represents the decrease in the value of the asset over a period of time. This value is computed on an yearly basis and projected as expense in the income statement for a given accounting period, till the asset is completely deprecated.
Similarly, when a payment is paid towards amortization, for instance towards procuring a license to perform a business or partial loan repayment. The total cost of the renewal/payment is computed and distributed over the period for which the license expires or loan is completely paid. This partial expense is then projected as expense in the income statement.
Q.3. (v) What do you mean by Startup Cost?
Start up cost is the cost incurred when setting up the business. Usually for starting an enterprise the entrepreneurs need to acquire the
a.
assets
b.
raw materials
c.
any other items
To acquire these they need to invest money at the time of starting the business. All these expenses incurred are known as start-up expenses. It is also known as working capital. These expenses occur much before the enterprise starts actually producing the products or delivering the services. Usually these expenses start occurring from the time the planning and preparation starts. The expenses occur during the start up might repeat again. For instance, a business that incurs the start up expenses to purchases might have to spend again to purchase the same machinery once the old one is depreciated.
Few of the expenses that the business need to incur are as follows.
a.
Acquisition of land
b.
Building
c.
Computers
d.
Dealing with registration
e.
Equipment
f.
Furniture and Fixtures
g.
Goods and Services (that will be input to the products or services offered by the business)
h.
Installation of machinery and other equipment/appliances
i.
Hiring expenses (hiring of employees, equipment etc)
j.
Judicial expenses
k.
Key resources acquisition (employees, raw materials etc)
l.
Licenses
m.
Machinery
n.
Operational expenses (salaries/rent etc)
o.
Purchase of software, utilities etc

Q.3. (vi) Explain Cost, Expenses and Expenditure.
The following is the explanation of cost, expenses and expenditure.
Cost: Cost is the monetary value that is incurred to produce a good or provide a service. The cost provide the business a measure of how the capital is being consumed. This helps them to make key decision regarding how to improve profits. A cost does not necessarily represent a cash flow. They are usually computed relatively based on the volume of consumption. All the costs summed up will be equal to an expense.
For instance when the expense towards electricity is ₹ 12,000/- per month. If there were 1000 products produced then the cost of electricity to produce each product would be ₹ 12/-. Here there is no cash outflow of ₹ 12/- every time a product is produced. However, there is a total cash flow of ₹ 12,000 at the end of the month, which is recorded as an expense.
Expense: An expense occurs whenever there is a cash flow in or out of the business. All the expenses are recorded in the accounts. They are useful to keep track various sources and events of cash flow. They occur by consuming goods and services. Examples include the maintenance or operational expenses that are incurred in the business.
Expenditure: Expenditure represents payment or disbursement of money and hence represents the outflow of money. The payment or disbursement can be in the form of cash payment or cheque payment. The business incurs expenditure when the payment is made for
a.
Assets like machinery, land and building.
b.
Marketing and promotional expenditure
c.
Payment of dues.
d.
Payment to the suppliers to procure the raw material
e.
Payments to the stakeholders
Q.3. (vii) What is a Cash Register? Why is it important for any business?
Cash register refers to the book or register used to record all the monetary transactions either in the form of cash or in the form of cheque or in the form of credit or loan. From the accounting point of view this is also known as the book of original entry.
A cash book has prominent significance in the business. It helps the business to get an understanding of various elements like
a.
Costs
b.
Expenses
c.
Income
d.
Profit
e.
Loss
f.
Loans to be recovered
g.
Credit sales
Earlier accounts department was using a book to maintain these entries. Now a days various softwares are available to maintain the cash registers which are more accurate and faster in nature and help in generating various reports related to the monetary transactions done by the business.
Q.4. Answer the following in about 150 words.
(i)
Why do we pay taxes?
(ii)
What do you mean by Break Even Point?
(iii)
How much profit can we earn? Is there any policy of the Government for Maximum Profit earning?
(iv)
A company makes a product with a selling price of Rs.20 per unit and variable costs of Rs. 12 per unit. The fixed costs for the period are Rs. 40,000/. What is the required output level to make a target profit of Rs. 0,000/-.
(v)
Identify the following items as inflow/outflow. Also give reason for your choice.
a. raw material
b. depreciation
c. machinery purchased
d. loan from bank
e. equity shares issued
f. excise duty paid
g. profit on sale of asset
h. interest received on investments
(vi)
What is “Startup Cost”? Identify the areas for requirement of Startup Cost.
Q.4. (i) Why do we pay taxes?
Taxes are levied by the government from the tax payers as a financial charge. The tax payer can be an individual or a legal entity such as a business or organization or institution. Evading taxes is illegal. The tax is usually levied on an activity (such as entertainment) or income or product.The functioning of the government needs money. Taxes are a means to collect money. The taxes thus collected are used for implementing various welfare activities such as building infrastructure, national security, health care, education, salaries to the government employees. By paying the tax, a citizen is contributing to the development or welfare of the nation. So, it is the responsibility of every citizen to ensure that they pay the tax without failure. Every citizen experiences many of the social welfare and development activities implemented by the government. So, it is a way of paying back or contributing to the nation and is the responsibility of the citizens.
Q.4. (ii) What do you mean by Break Even Point?
Break Even Point refers to the stage at which the business is able to generate the revenues or sales to meet its expenses. At this stage, the business is neither making profits nor incurring losses. It is just making enough revenues to meet its expenses.
The business performs the Break Even Analysis to find the Break Even Point as it is a significant measure of how the business is performing. It helps them to determine whether a product or service is worth continuing. This is determined whether the associated costs with a product or service are covered by the revenue generated from that product or service.
Thus after performing the Break Even Analysis and determining the bream even point, the business can make key decisions regarding the subsequent measures to be taken. Few of these decisions could be like altering the prices, ensuring that the bids are competitive and start preparations to procure additional funds through various resources. One of the key decisions taken after the break even analysis is the Goal/Target Setting and Profit Planning.
Mathematically, we can say that when the break even point is reached
Total Revenue/Income = Total Expenses
The break even point is computed by using the following formula.
{\text{Break Even Volume (Per Month)} = \dfrac{\text{Fixed Cost (Per month)}}{\text{Gross Margin Per Unit}}}

Q.4. (iii) How much profit can we earn? Is there any policy of the Government for Maximum Profit earning?
Profit is the monetary reward gained in a business and a business results in a profit when the total revenue generated is in excess of costs, expenses and taxes incurred during the course of business. The profits(or losses) are usually projected through the Income statement also known as Profit and Loss statement.
Mathematically it can represented as
Profit = Total Revenue from Sales – Total Sales Expenses
Thus the way one can increase profits is by increasing the revenue from the sales or by decreasing the overall expenses or both.
Increase in the revenue through sales can be achieved either through increasing the number of sales as much as possible or increasing the price of the product.
Decrease in the sales expenses can be done by optimizing the sales process and ensuring that there are minimum possible expenses at each stage.
Thus we can say that there is no limit to the profit earned by an organization. The maximum profit earned by a business is dependent on the sales price, sales volume and the expenses. Thus it can go to any levels.The government did not lay out any policies to restrict the amount of profit made by any business. If the product or service is innovative and effectively takes care of peoples’ needs, its sales volume is high and hence the business makes more profits.
If the product or service has lot of value to offer, it is priced at high margin and the business can make more money even from low sales volumes.
Another way of increasing the profits is to reduce the expenses by optimizing the profits.
Thus in any case it is well adopted by the public and hence the government does not intervene in these matters.
However, one can not make more than a specified percentage of profit on certain items like essential medicines etc. Only in this case the government has laid down a policy to restrict the amount of profit a company can make on a product (not on overall profit which again depends on the sales volume).
Also, the more the profits made by a business, the more it is beneficial to the government, as the government then gets revenue in the form of taxes.
Q.4. (iv) A company makes a product with a selling price of ₹ 20 per unit and variable costs of ₹ 12 per unit. The fixed costs for the period are ₹ 40,000/. What is the required output level to make a target profit of ₹ 0,000/-.
As you know, the point at which the company will be making a profit of ₹ 0,000/- i.e. neither profit not loss is the break even point.
Fixed Cost
= ₹ 40,000
Unit Sale Price
= ₹ 20
Variable cost per product
= ₹ 12
Gross margin (per unit)
= Sale Price – Variable Cost
= ₹ 20 – ₹ 12
= ₹ 8
Break Even Volume
{= \dfrac{\text{Fixed Cost}}{\text{Gross Margin}}}
= \dfrac{₹~40,000}{8}
= ₹ 5,000
∴ The output level should be 5,000 units to make a target profit of ₹ 0,000/- i.e. to reach break even point.
Q.4. (v) Identify the following items as inflow/outflow. Also give reason for your choice.
a. raw material
b. depreciation
c. machinery purchased
d. loan from bank
e. equity shares issued
f. excise duty paid
g. profit on sale of asset
h. interest received on investments

The following is the identification of the items as inflow/outflow. The reason of my choice are also provided.
Item
Inflow/Outflow
Reason for choice
a. raw material
Outflow
Purchase of raw material is revenue expense. Hence it results in cash inflow.
b. depreciation
None
When a building or equipment or machinery is depreciated in value, there won’t be any physical cost going out of the business or cash coming into the business. It is just the cost computed and taken into consideration but does not result in cash flow. As this expenditure does not involve any cash flow, it will neither fall into the inflow or outflow.
c. machinery purchased
Outlow
This is capital expenditure and results in outflow of cash.
d. loan from bank
Inflow
Loan amount is an inflow of cash into the business.
e. equity shares issued
Inflow
This results in shareholders (to be) investing in the company shares. So cash will inflow into the business.
f. excise duty paid
Outflow
This is an expense and hence cash flows out of the business.
g. profit on sale of asset
Inflow
The profit from sale of assets results in cash inflowing into the business.
h. interest received on investments
Inflow
Interest results in cash inflowing into the business.

Q.4. vi) What is “Startup Cost”? Identify the areas for requirement of Startup Cost.
Q.5. Answer the following in about 250 words
(i)
Define the term ‘break-even’.
(ii)
Explain why break-even analysis is of reduced value to a multi-product firm? Analyse the factors that any business should take into consideration before using break-even analysis as a basis for decision making.
Q.5. (i) Define the term ‘break-even’.
In a business, Break-even refers to the situation where in the business is able to generate the sales or revenues so as to meet the expenses of the business. When the business has reached the state of break-even, it will be neither profits nor in losses. Its revenues and profits will be evenly matched. Break even plays a critical role in the business, as it is a major mile stone and from then on the business will start making its profits.

Q.5. (ii) Explain why break-even analysis is of reduced value to a multi-product firm? Analyse the factors that any business should take into consideration before using break-even analysis as a basis for decision making.
A multi-product firm will be producing more than one product. These products may vary in size, appearance and purpose. As it is difficult to calculate the break-even point by considering only one product, the company has to consider a common unit to calculate the break-even point. Usually this occurs when the business is allocating budget and provided that it has already started the sales.In order to calculate the break-even point, the company should first calculate the product mix. The product mix is the cumulative range of products produced by the company. Also, the expenses are spread across multiple products and hence the overall cost on each product will be less than that if it was produced as a single unit.
Also, in case of multi-product firm, the various costs are not associated with a single product but distributed across all the products offered by the business. Thus the business will be able to reach the break-even point much before as compared to a business that is offering a single product or service.
Thus we can say that the in a business engaged in the product of multiple products the break-even analysis is of reduced value in a multi-product firm.

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