Emerging Trends

This page contains the NCERT Informatics Practices class 11 chapter 2 Emerging Trends. You can find the solutions for the chapter 2 of NCERT class 11 Informatics Practices Exercise. So is the case if you are looking for NCERT class 11 Informatics Practices related topic Emerging Trends questions and answers for the Exercise
1. List some of the cloud-based services that you are using at present.
The following is the list of some of the cloud-based services that we are using at present.
Cloud Service Model
IaaS-Infrastructure as a Service
Microsoft Azure, Amazon WebServices, Google Cloud Infrastructure, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure
PaaS-Platform as a Service
Oracle Cloud, IBC Cloud Foundry, Salesforce, Microsoft Azure, Google AppEngine, SAP Cloud
SaaS-Software as a Service
Microsoft Office 365, Dropbox, Google Docs, Slack, JIRA, Tableau etc
2. What do you understand by Internet of Things? List some of its potential applications.
‘Internet of Things’, abbrevated as IoT, is a network of devices that have an embedded hardware and software to communicate (connect and exchange data) with other devices on the same network. Using ‘Internet of Things’ we can eliminate the human intervention required to run household devices that are equipped with advanced hardware (microcontrollers) and software. IoT brings together these devices to work so that
they work in collaboration
and assist each other in creating an intelligent network of things.
The following are some of the potential applications of ‘Internet of Things’
Smart House Keeping
Smart Home Security
Smart Agriculture
Smart Warehouses
Smart Vending Machines
3. Write a short note on the following:
Cloud Computing
Big data and its characteristics
a) Cloud Computing: Cloud computing refers to the delivery of the computer-based services over the Internet or cloud. Thus, cloud computing makes it easy to access these computer-based services from any where using any smart devices. These computer-based services comprise
hardware (servers)
storage etc.
The cloud service providers charge the users on pay per use basis. The following are two most important features of cloud computing.
They are cost-effective
They can be availed on-demand.
b) Big data and its characteristics: The users accessing the internet generate very huge amount of data. This results in the generation of data sets that have enormous
and complexity
These generated data sets are called Big Data. The Big data is not just voluminious but is unstructured too. So, it poses challenges like
and visualization
Sometimes, Big data hold rich information and knowledge. Thus it could provide high business value.
The following are the characteristics of Big Data
Volume: The most important characteristic of Big data is its enormous volume. If any data set is so large in size that it is difficult to process it with traditional DBMS tools, it can be termed as big data.
Velocity: Compared to the rate at which the traditional datasets are generated, the big data has exponentially higher generation rate.
Variety: The data set comprise of varied data such as
and unstructured
data. Few examples are
webpages etc.
Veracity: Sometimes, big data can be
there can be abnormality in the data
issues with the data collection methods.
Verocity refers to the trustworthiness of the data because processing incorrect data can give
wrong results
mislead the interpretations
Value: Big data should have hidden patterns and useful knowledge that can be of high business value. The processing of big data requires expensive investment of resources. So, before we actually process this data we should investigate before hand to ensure that the discovery will have potential business value. Otherwise, if there is no value in the discovery, our efforts will go wasted.
4. Explain the following along with their applications.
Aritificial Intelligence
Machine Learning
a) Aritificial Intelligence: Artificial Intelligence refers to the simulation of the natural intelligence of human beings into machines. This will make the machines behave intelligently. A machines that is equipped with artificial intelligence can imitate some of the cognitive functions of human beings like
Decision making
Problem Solving etc.
To induce artificial intelligence, the machines are programmed to create a knowledge base and make decisions based on it. This will enable them to perform tasks with minimum human intervention. An AI system can also learn from
past experiences
or outcomes
to make new decisions.
Some of the applications of artificial intelligence are as follows:
Route map applications like Google maps
Image recognition applications similar to the one used by Facebook to recognize friends’ faces and tag them.
Voice enabled personal assistant applications like Siri, Google Now, Cortana, Alexa etc.
Robotic arms in the manufacturing industries
Surgical Robots machines deployed in the healthcare industry
OpenAI’s ChatGPT and GPT4
Google’s Bard
b) Machine Learning: Machine Learning is a subsystem of Artificial Intelligence. In machine learning, computers have the ability to learn from data using statistical techniques. In machine learning, the computers are not explicitly programmed by a human being to learn a task. Instead, they’re supplied with an algorithm that uses data to learn on their own and make predictions about an outcome. These algorithms are called models. These models then go through the following steps.
Models are first trained and tested using a training data and then with the testing data.
This continues until the models start predicting outcomes to an acceptable level of accuracy.
They are then used to make predecitions about new and unknown data.
Some of the applications of machine learning are as follows:
Image Recognition
Speech Recognition
Traffic Recommendations by Google
Self-Driving Cars
Virtual Assistants
Statistical Arbitrate: Arbitrage refers to automated trading of securities in large volumes.
Predictive analys to estimate the traffic to an eCommerce platform
Medical Diagnosis
Automated friend tragging/recommendations
5. Differentiate between cloud computing and grid computing with suitable examples.
The following are the differences between cloud computing and grid computing.
Cloud Computing
Grid Computing
Cloud computing refers to the deliver of computer-based services over the Internet or cloud so that these services are accessible from anywhere, using any smart device.
Grid computing refers to the computer network of heterogeneous computational resources that are dispersed geographically.
Primary Focus
Delivery of computer-based services over the internet or cloud so that they are accessible from anywhere using any smart device.
To form a virtual supercomputer with an enormous processing power and storage to run an application or solve a single large task and to reach a common goal.
Delivery of Service
Delivered by a cloud service provider who rents the required services to the users.
Individual or multiple organizations. In this, individual multiple computing nodes are joined together to solve a common computational problem.
i. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
ii. Platform as a Service (PaaS)
iii. Software as a Service (SaaS)
i. Data Grid
ii. CPU or Processor Grid
To run a bigger application or process a large amount of data without having the required storage or processing power on the personal computer while being connected to the internet.
To solve a single large task/common computational problem and to reach a common goal.
Computing Architecture
Client-Server specific
Distributed computing
Commercial Motive
Though few basic versions are available for free, it is mostly available as a commercial platform.
The aim is to reduce the cost associated with procuring high-confiration computing resources by utilizing the computing power of the individual computing resources.
Google Cloud, Amazon’s cloud services, Microsoft’s Azure and Microsoft’s Office 365.
NASA Information Power Grid, MCell Project, World Community Grid etc.
6. Justify the following statement-
‘Storage of data is cost effective and time saving in cloud computing.’
Data available can be stored on a Hard Disk Drive (HDD), CD/DVD, Memory Card or SSD. These external storage devices are expensive. Also, we can not purchase them at our required size. They are available at standard sizes. For example, for storing a 2MB file, we should purchase a Hard Disk Drive whose size is in GB. In addition, if the data demands that it should be stored in any Database system or any other software, we need to install the required software which also requires additional storage.
Cloud storage eliminates this problem, as we can pay for the use of only required amount of data storage used. The data storage provided by cloud services is available on-demand and the payment is based on pay per use. This makes it available at a reasonable cost.
In addition, the amount of time spent in looking out for the best deal, choosing the best model, and getting it shipped, installing the required drives is saved. Also, we do not have to physically carry these storage devices as the data stored in the cloud can be accessed through any smart devices.
In addition to this, if the data requires any special software like DBMS, the cloud services make it readily available. The effort/resources required in procuring/installing these special softwares is also saved.
Thus the requirement is fulfilled with the available resources/devices and at much faster pace.
So, we can conclude that the storage of data is cost effective and time saving in cloud computing.
7. What is on-demand service? How is it provided in cloud computing?
On-Demand Service:On-demand service is a business model where in the computing resources are made available to the user on a need-basis. The user can initially start with small number of resources. As the need for additional computing resources increases, they can avail the additional computing resources. This will let the users focus on task at hand while availing the services at a reduced cost. Business start-ups can avail this serice and eliminate the need for a huge investment upfront in computing resources.
How On-Demand Service is provided in Cloud Computing:
In cloud computing world, the on-demand resources are provided through the cloud service provider. Depending on the computing resources provided, this can be categorized into three different models.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): The IaaS providers provide computing infrastructure such as
virtual machines(VM)
strage and backup facility
network compnents
operating systems or any other hardware or software.
A user can use the hardware infrastructure located at a remote location to
and execute
any software application on that cloud infrastructure.
Platform as a Service (PaaS): The PaaS providers provide a deployment environment for developers. The underlying infrastructure and their setup is handled by the PaaS provider. Using this platform or environment, the users can
and deliver
software applications.
Software as a Service (PaaS): The SaaS providers provide access to application software usually requiring a licensing or subscription. The user is provided access to the required configuration settings of the application software.
8. Write the examples of the following:
Government provided cloud computing platform
Large scale private cloud service providers and the services they provide
Examples of Government provided cloud computing platform: Goverment of India has started the cloud computing initiative ‘GI Cloud’ which has been named as ‘MeghRaj’ (https://cloud.gov.in). It provides the IaaS, PaaS, SaaS services to the government organizations across the country.Megh is Hindi word and is literal translation of ‘Cloud’. Raj stands for kingdom. So, the literal meaning of Meghraj is ‘Cloud Kingdom’
Examples of Large scale private cloud service providers and the services they provide The following are various large cloud service providers along with the service(s) they provide.
Amazon Web Services (AWS): AWS provides various private cloud service options such as
virtual machines
and network management.
Google Cloud Platform (GCP): GCP provides various private cloud service options such as
virtual machines
and network management.
Microsoft Azure: Microsoft Azure provides a range of cloud services incluing
virtual machines
and network management.
IBM Cloud: IBM cloud offers clould services that include features like
automated scaling
and workload management.
9. A company interested in cloud computing is looking for a provider who offers a set of basic services such as virtual server provisioning and on-demand storage that can be combineed into a platform for deploying and running customised applications. What type of cloud computing model fits these requirements?
Platform as a Service
Software as a Service
Infrastructure as a Service ✔
The following is the explanation.
Platform as a Service: It provides platform or evenvironmentto develop, test and deliver software application without having to worry about the underlying infrastructure. This is not what our requirement is looking for.
Software as a Service: It provides on-demand access to application sfotware, usually requiring a licensing or subscription by the user. This is not what our requirement is looking for.
Infrastructure as a Service: It provides different kinds of insfrastructure such as servers, virtual machines (VM), storage and backup facility, network components, operating systems or any other hardware or softare. This matches our requiremnet.
10. Which is not one of the features of IoT devices?
Remotely controllable
Can turn themselves off if necessary ✔
All of the above
The following are the two essential features of IoT devices.
Being remotely controllable
However, they do not have the ability to turn themselves off, if necessary. IoT devices can be built with this feature. But it is not a standard feature of IoT devices (it may not present in all the IoT devices)
11. If Government plans to make a smart school by applying IoT concepts, how can each of the following be implemented in order to transform a school into IoT enabled smart school?
Smart boards
Online tests
Wifi sensors on classrooms doors
Sensors in buses to monitor their location
Wearables (watches or smart belts) for attendance monitoring
The following are some of the ways that can be implemented in order to transform a school into IoT enabled smart school by the Government.
e-textbooks: The students can be equipped with laptops/tablets and e-textbooks can be made available on these student gadgets. The students can use these e-textbooks to learn interactively. They can use these devices to collaborate with their classmates/teachers to enhance the learning experience.
Smartboards: The use of smartboard can enhance the teaching experience for the teachers and learning experience for the students. The learning/teaching can be improved through the use of multi-media content. The students can collaborate with the teachers in real-time. The smartboards can also be used to track student progress and provide personalized feedback about each student.
Online tests: Online tests can be conducted to assess student knowledge and their understanding. The tests can even be designed based on the student level of knowledge and provide instantaneous feedback. The reports generated will help the teachers to learn about the student’s learning needs and take appropriate action based on their strenghts or weaknesses. Further it is easy and less time-consuming to re-conduct these tests for an individual student, if they miss them due to any reason.
Wifi sensors on classrooms doors: They can be used to monitor the classroom attendance as well as student movement. The information gathered can be used to identify the areas of improvement and make appropriate decisions with respect to the teaching and learning. They can also be used to detect the movement of humans and automatically instruct the classroom devices (lights/fans/ACs/Smartboards) to turn on and off, thus saving the energy requirements and contributing to the environmental causes.
Sensors in buses to monitor their location: The data can be used to identify the training requirements for the bus-drivers. The school management and parents have real time access about the location and movement of the buses.
Wearables (watches or smart belts) for attendance monitoring: Student attendance can be monitored in real time. The students and parents have real time access to students’ attendance and can make informed decisions about teaching and learning. The time spent in conventional method of taking attendance is saved.
12. Five friends plan to try a startup. However, they have a limited budget and limited computer infrastructure. How can they avail the benefits of cloud services to launch their startup?
The five friends can avail the benefits of cloud services to launch their startup. They can follow the steps provided below to establish their start-up within their limited budget.
Identify the startup’s infrastructure needs: They should identify the kind of infrastructure required to launch their startup. They need to determine and decide about web hosting, database servers and other services requrired to lauch their startup.
Choose a cloud provider: They should explore the various cloud service providers who are providing the cloud services required by them. Examples of clould service providers are Amazon Web Servics (AWS), Microsoft Azure, Google Clould Platform etc.
Create cloud accounts: Once they decide on the cloud service provider, they should create a cloud account. Based on the requirement either individual personal account and/or a business account may be needed. They can even take advantage of the free trial options and discounts offered by the cloud service provider.
Set up cloud services: They can start setting up the necessary cloud setup. As they have a limited budget, getting themselves acquainted with the training on how to use the cloud services will be an added advantage. For a start-up with limited budget requirement this will save up the cost of hiring an external cloud services professional. The initial setup requies creating virtual machines, configuring the databases and setting up requrired networking.
Monitor and manage usage: The cloud services come with a pay-per-use option. So, they should monitor and manage their usage to see that the costs are within limits. They have the option to adjust the usage or choose a different pricing plan to keep the costs lower.
Once the required cloud setup is ready, they can start using it. As the cloud serices can be accessed by any of them from anywhere through any device using the internet, they can even work remotely and collaborate on their startup.
13. Governments provide various scholarships to students of different classes. Prepare a report on how blockchain technology can be used to promote accountability, transparency and efficiency in distribution of scholarships?
Various scholarships by the Government to students in different classes can be distributed through the use of blockchain technology. When the distribution of scholarship is backed by the blockchain technology, it promotes the following:
Accountability: As block chain provides a transparannt and secure platform for recording and verifying transactions related to the distribution of scholarships. This will promote accountability. As blockchain technology is decentralized in nature, the records that it maintains can not be altered or deleted without knowledge and permission of the network. Thus the integrity of the information is maintained. This promotes accountability as the verification of the athenticity of the data and transactions becomes easier. This further reduces the scope for any risk of fraud and errors. In addition, as the blockchain technology allows the automation of certain processes using smart contracts, it reduces the need for manual intervention, thereby increasing the accountability further as the transactions are executed as desired.
Transparency: Blockchain technology promotes transparency in the distribution of scholarships by creating a tamper-prroof and descentralized platform for recording and verifying scholarship records. This eliminates intermediaries and reduces the risk of errors or fraud. Smart contracts automate the scholarship disbursement process based on predetermined criteria, ensuring fair and transparent distribution of scholarship funds.
Efficiency: Using blockchain technology in the distribution of scholarships, we can eliminate intermidiaries, reduce the need for manual intervention and automate the scholarship disbursement process using smart contracts. This will make the system more efficient. The scholarship distribution system becomes more streamlined and efficient for managing records and ditributing funds. This in-turn reduces the risk of errors or delays.
14. How IoT and WoT are related?
The following is the relationship between IoT and WoT.
Concept and Foundation
IoT refers to the network of devices that have an embedded hardware and software to communicate (connect and exchange data) with other devices on the same network.
WoT extends the concept of IoT by integrating IoT devices and systems into the web. Thus WoT makes IoT devices accessible and controllable by using web technologies.
Communication Technology
IoT devices typically communicate with each other using specialized protocols such as Bluetooth, Zigbee or MQTT.
WoT devices use standard web protocols such as HTTP, WebSocket and CoAP which allows them to integrate with other web-based devices and systems.
IoT applications focus on data collection, monitoring and control of physical devices and systems.
WoT applications take advantage of the web technologies to enable more advanced interactions such as data analysis, visualization and sharing, providing a more holistic approach to managing IoT devices and systems.
Smart homes, Indusrial automation and environmental monitoring.
Web-enabled devices, smart cities, and digital twins. These are all built on the foundation of IoT by integrating devices and systems into the web.
Match the following:
Column A
Column B
You got a reminder to take medication
Smart Parking
You got a sms alert that you forgot to lock the door
Smart Wearable
You got the sms alert that parking space is available near your block
Home Automation
You turned off your LED TV from your wrist watch
Smart Health
The following is the matching.
Column A
Column B
You got a reminder to take medication
Smart Health
You got a sms alert that you forgot to lock the door
Home Automation
You got the sms alert that parking space is available near your block
Smart Parking
You turned off your LED TV from your wrist watch
Smart Wearables