Business Studies

This page contains the details of the chapters in class 12 Business Studies. The links take you to the NCERT solutions page for the corresponding chapter.
NCERT solutions for the following chapters are available for class 12 Business Studies. The solutions for NCERT class 12 Business Studies are provided in detail and can be viewed by clicking on the links provided. This page gives an overview of the lessons. The entire Business Studies book is devided into two parts namely
Business Studies Part I
Principles and Functions of Management
1. Nature and Significance of Management: This chapter is dedicated to teach the students the characteristics of management and their significance in an organization. It explains how the management is an art, science and a profession by nature. Give an introduction to the functions of management. It concludes by explaining the nature and significance of coordination.

2. Principles of Management: This chapter focuses on the definition, nature and importance of the various principles of management. Taylor’s principles of management and scientific management techniques are introduced. It also deals with the Fayol’s principle of management.

3. Business Environment: This chapter provides the details of the business environment and touches on the its significance by providing an insight into the different elements of business environment. The students are introduced to the economic environment in India and the effect of various Government policies in the business.

4. Planning: This chapter introduces the planning, providing the details about the features and significance of planning. It also covers the scope/limitations of the planning. Introduction is given about the various steps involved in the planning and deals with the various types of plan.

5. Organising: In this chapter, the students are introduced to the idea of organising, process of organising and the significance of organising. An account is provided about the definition, merits and demerits of functional organization, divisional organization, formal and informal organization. The students are also introduced to the concept of delegation and decentralization and their importance and differences.

6. Staffing: This chapter defines staffing, its relation with the human resource management, significance, steps in the process. It also covers the recruitment and selection, steps involved, sources. Students are also introduced to the need for training and development and covers various forms of training.

7. Directing: This chapter introduces the directing and its significance in the business environment. It deals with the principles guiding the directing process. The supervision is defined and its significance is covered. It also defines the motivation and its significance. The Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs is introduced to students and details are provided regarding how it can be used to motivate the employees working in a business environment. Methods like allocating financial and non-financial incentive through which the employees are motivated is also covered. This chapter also defines what is leadership and its significance in the business environment. It also covers the qualities of a good leader. The students also learn about the formal and informal communications that take place in the organizations and also the various barriers that hinder the effective communication, and the measures by which these barriers can be overcome.

8. Controlling: This chapter defines controlling, its significance, the relation between planning and controlling. The steps and techniques of controlling are also covered.
Business Studies Part II
Business Finance and Marketing
9. Financial Management:In this chapter students learn about business finance, understand the financial management and its role in an enterprise. It explains the objectives of financial management and the means by which they can be achieved. It also covers the concept of financial planning and its significance. The students are introduced to the meaning of capital structure and also analyses the factors affecting the choice of an effective capital structure. Fixed and working capital are explained and analysis about the factors influencing their requirement are also provided.

10. Marketing: This chapter describes what marketing is and differentiates between the marketing and selling. It also covers the various functions of marketing and covers the role of marketing in the development of an economy in the business environment, in the society and to the consumers. The various elements of marketing-mix are covered. It also explains how the products are classified into various categories. The factors that influence the price of a product are covered. It also gives an account of various channels of distribution. Finally the various tools of promotion like advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and publicity are covered.

11. Consumer Protection: This chapter covers the significance of consumer protection giving an account of legal framework that is in place in India to protect the consumer. It also describes the consumer rights that are in place in India. The various consumer responsibilities are covered. It also deals with the ways by which the consumer protection can be achieved. It also covers the role of consumer organizations and NGOs in safeguarding the consumer interests.

Click on the chapter names to visit the page to find the notes and solutions to the questions